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Control of biofilm formation in cooling tower using electro-potentiated metal ions.

National University of Ireland, Galway

Brief of Description of Project

Brazil has one of the largest densities of cooling tower/ heat exchange systems in the developed world where they are used for cooling processes as diverse as energy or fuel ethanol production.Biofilm growth on cooling tower matrices presents a major challenge associated with the efficient running of cooling towers. It can lead to microbial-mediated scaling and corrosion and act as a reservoir for the growth of Legionella pneumophila, (the causative agent of Legionnaires disease) which can be dispersed as bioaerosols in the cooling tower drift. Bio control measures have focussed on either the physical removal of the biofilm or the inhibition of biofilm growth on matrices and make-up water. The later may necessitate the use of dangerous and environmentally unfriendly biocides (such as halogens and chloroamines) whilst other control measures (UV, ultrasound, peroxides) have met with limited success. 

We have an on-going scientific collaboration with an Irish company which focuses on the development of a biocidal system which generates electrically-charged copper and silver cations. This has proved effective in inhibiting the growth of planktonic human pathogens in the laboratory setting. The aim of the investigation undertaken this Ph.D. is to test the efficacy of the system (including with other metals such as zinc and palladium) for the control of biofilm growth on cooling tower matrices. Experimentation will be carried out using scaled-down cooling towers and modified Robbins devices attached to continuous culture systems in the laboratory. Further physiochemical and molecular based techniques will be used to determine the effect of the generated biocides on biofilm structure, physiology, microbial composition and protein expression in challenged and unchallenged biofilms. 

The outcome of this undertaking has a real potential for the development of a novel system for controlling biofilm growth in the industrial setting with a translation of technology to the healthcare sector.

Unique selling points of PhD project in NUI Galway:
Nuigalway offers a four-year Structured `PhD programme – with added learning structures to enhance the scientific researcher. This project is industrially-driven and recognised as being important for the development of the technology by Enterprise Ireland.Within NUIGalway, Dr Fleming’s and Dr. Carroll’s Group are member of the Infectious Disease research Cluster which facilitates cross fertilisation of techniques and offers a forum for discussuon both within Microbiology and across other disciplines.

Dr.’s Carroll and Fleming have many years’ experience in working with continuous culture and biofilms and have developed exciting and novel techniques in this area. Dr. Carroll has developed expertise in 1- and 2-D protein gel electrophoresis for looking at the regulation of proteins in biofilms. Dr. Fleming’s Group leads a dynamic and focus led group with a multidisciplinary approach to research. The ethos of the group is one of fostering the researcher so she/he can realise her/his full potential as a creative  and productive scientist. Dr. Fleming has over thirty-year’s experience of working with chemostat culture and has advanced chemostat culture facilities. He has published widely in the field and has well established links with Industry in the use of this medium for selection and enrichment purposes.


Priority Areas

Principal Investigators

  • Director of the Postgraduate Diploma in Applied Microbiology Programme.

    Professional Profile:

    • Director of Postgraduate Diploma in Applied Microbiology since1992.
    • Course Director of the Genetics Module course (2004 -)
    • World Health Organisation Advisor at the WHO Consultation on ’The increased incidence of Human Campylobacteriosis’ (2000).
    • Member of the Microbiology Sub-Committee of the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (2000- present)
    • Member of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Animal Health and Welfare of the Department of Agriculture and Food.
    • Member of the Irish Health Research Board ’Infections, Immunity and Host Defence’ Research Awards Panel (2004 – present.)
    • Member of the RELAY Steering Group Committee for Department of Agriculture Food Institute Research Measure (2002 – present)
    • Member of the Scientific Committee for the European Union Science Olympiad (EUSO) held in the NUI Galway (2005)

    Research Interests:

    Detection and Epidemiology: Design and development of novel targets for use in nucleic acid based diagnostics assays for the detection of bacterial food pathogens.

    Use of molecular methods (culture and DNA - based) for detection identificatiuon and epidemiological studies of bacterial food pathogens. Methods include: PCR, PFGE, RAPD, RFLP, Ribotyping, DNA sequencing.

    Adaptive Tolerance Response in   Campylobacter spp.: Physiological stress response in bacteria and the effect of processing treatments of bacterial survival, virulence and gene expression. In particular the Adaptive Tolerance Response in Campylobacter spp. Methods include the use of proteomics and microarrays.

    Study of selective antibiotic resistance mechanisms: Evaluation of the effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the selection of single and multiple drug resistance in bacterial pathogens.
    Biofilms: Biofilm formation.

    Bioactive Ingredients from Algal Sources: Assessment of the effects of the alginate and  laminaran extracts on intestinal flora. Novel Antimicrobial tools to limit Campylobacter infection of poultry

    Recent Publications:

    • Duffy, K. and Carroll, C.V. (1996). The susceptibility of microaerophilic and aerotolerant variants of Campylobacter jejuni to various stresses. Society of General Microbiology Meeting, Galway, January 1996.

    • McGrath, Y., O’ Hici, B., Doyle, O., Flynn, J., and Carroll, C. V. (1997). The application of Typing Methods to Clinical Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni. Presented at the Annual Irish Geneticists Meeting, Dept. of Microbiology, University College Galway, April. 1997, p.31.

    • Duffy, K. S.,  and Carroll, C. V. (1997). Strategies towards the cloning and sequencing of the groELS genes of Campylobacter jejuni . Presented at the Annual Irish Geneticists Meeting, Dept. of Microbiology, University College Galway, April. 1997, p.11.

    • Duffy, K. S., Moran, A. P.,  and Carroll, C. V. (1997). Ultra Violet and Hydrogen Peroxide Sensitivity of Campylobacter jejuni ; a Comparison between a Microaerophilic strain and its Aerotolerant Variant Form. Presented at the 9th International Workshop on Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms. Arthur's Seat hotel Cape Town, South Africa, 15 - 19 September 1997. F.2. p28.

    • Smith, P., Carroll, C.V., Wilkins, B., Johnson, P., Nic Gabhainn, S. and Smith, L. P. (1999). The effect of wind speed and direction on the distribution of sewage associated bacteria in Galway Bay. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 28 (3): 184-188.

    • O'Sullivan, N. A., Fallon, R., Carroll, C., Smith, T. and Maher, M. (2000). Detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in broiler chicken samples using a PCR/DNA probe membrane based colometric detection assay. Molecular and Cellular Probes, 14 (1): 7-16.

    • Grennan, B., O'Sullivan, N.A., Fallon, R., Carroll, C., Smith, T., Glennon, M., and Maher, M. (2001). PCR-ELISA's for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in poultry samples. BioTechniques, 30 (3): 602 - 611.

    • Fallon, R.V., Doolan, I., O'Sullivan, N.A., Smith, T. and Carroll, C.V. (2001). Isolation of Campylobacter species from farm to fork in Ireland. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 291: 38.

    • Fallon, R.V., Casey, E., Maher, M., Smith, T.  and Carroll, C.V. (2001). Characterisation of Campylobacter species isolated from broiler chickens by flagellin gene typing. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 291: 66.

    • Murphy, C., Carroll, C. and Jordan, K.N. (2002) Induction of an adaptive tolerance response increases survival of Campylobacter jejuni in acidic foods. Irish Journal of Agriculture and Food Research 41: 124.

    • Murphy, C., Carroll, C. and Jordan, K.N. (2003) Novel mechanism of survival of Campylobacter jejuni due to environmental stresses. Irish Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 42, 162-163.

    • McCarthy, D., O’Hagan, N., Glannon, M., Shkarlat, P., Carroll, C., Cormican, M. and Maher, M. (2003). Application of a PCR/DNA-probe colorimetric Assay to the investigation of floroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.   International Journal of Medical Microbiology 293, 51.

    • Murphy, C., Carroll, C and Jordan, K.N. (2003) Extracellular signalling mechanism that increases Campylobacter jejuni survival of environmental stress. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 293, 59.

    • Murphy, C., Carroll, C. and Jordan, K.N. (2003) The role of an adaptive tolerance response in increased survival of Campylobacter jejuni during environmental stress. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 293, 59

      O’Rourke, M., Carroll, C., Maher, M. and Casey, E. (2003). Development and application of real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for cadF and cdtB expression studies in Campylobacter. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 293, 83.

    • O’Leary A.M., Whyte, P., McGill, K., Cowley, D., Madden, R.,  Moran, L., Scates, P., Collins, J., and Carroll, C. (2003). Genetic heterogeneity of Campylobacter jejuni strains of clinical and food origin in Ireland determined by PFGE and flaA PCR RFLP analysis. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 293, 98.

    • Casey, E., Doolan, I., Whyte, P., and Carroll, C.. (2004). A comparison of genotypic methods for assessing strain diversity amongst thermotolerant Campylobacters isolated from broiler farms in Ireland. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 293, 101.

    • Canty, D., Fanning, S., Cormican, M., and Carroll, C.. (2003). Genotypic evidence of a relationship between Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from poultry and humans. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 293, 105.

    • Doolan, I., Casey, E., Whyte, P., Cowley, D., and Carroll, C. (2004).  Investigation of the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in commercially produced broiler flocks in the Republic of Ireland. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 293, 137.

    • Fallon, R., O'Sullivan, N., Maher, M., and Carroll, C. (2003). Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from broiler chickens isolated at an Irish poultry-processing plant. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 36 (5): 277–281.

    • Murphy, C., Carroll, C.., and Jordan, K. N. (2003). Induction of an adaptive tolerance response in the foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 223 (1): 89-93.

    • Murphy, C., Carroll, C. and Jordan, K.N. (2003) Identification of a novel stress resistance mechanism in Campylobacter jejuni. Journal of Applied Microbiology 95 (4): 704-708.

    • Whyte, P., Mc Gill, K., Cowley, D., Carroll, C., Doolan, I., O'Leary, A., Casey E., and Collins, J. D. (2003).  A comparison of two culture media for the recovery of thermophilic campylobacters in broiler farm samples. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 54 (3): 367-371.

    • Maher, M., Finnegan, C., Collins, E., Ward, B., Carroll, C.., and Cormican, M. (2003). Evaluation of culture methods and a DNA probe-based PCR assay for detection of Campylobacter species in clinical specimens of feces. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 41 (7): 2980-2986  

    • Fitzmaurice, J., Glennon, M., Duffy, G., Sheridan, J. J., Carroll, C.. and Maher. M. (2004). Application of real-time PCR and RT-PCR assays for the detection and quantitation of VT1 and VT2 toxin genes in E. coli 0157:H7. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 18 (2): 123-132.

    • P. Whyte, K. McGill, D. Cowley, R.H. Madden, L. Moran, P. Scates, C. Carroll, A. O’Leary, S. Fanning, J.D. Collins, E. McNamara, J.E. Moore, M. Cormican (2004). Occurrence of Campylobacter in retail foods in Ireland.  International Journal of Food Microbiology. 95 (2): 111-118

    • Fitzmaurice, J., Duffy, G., Kilbane, B., Sheridan, J. J., Carroll, C.. and Maher. M. (2004). Comparison of a membrane surface adhesion recovery method with an IMS method for use in a polymerase chain reaction method to detect Escherichia coli   0157:H7 in minced beef.  Journal of Microbiological methods, 59 (2): 243-252.

    • Murphy, C., Carroll, C. and Jordan, K.N. (2005). The effect of different media on the survival and induction of stress responses by Campylobacter jejuni.  Journal of Microbiological Methods, 62(2): 161-166

    • Murphy, C., Carroll, C., and Jordan, K.N. (2006). Environmental survival mechanisms of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, a review .  Journal of Applied Microbiology, 100: 623-632.

    • McGill, K., Cowley, D., Moran, L., Scates, P., O'Leary, A., Madden, R. H., Carroll, C., McNamara, E., Moore, J. E., Fanning, S., Collins, J.D., and Whyte P.  (2006).  Antibiotic resistance of retail food and human Campylobacter isolates on the island of Ireland from 2001-2002.  Epidemiology and Infection , 134 (6): 1282-1291.

    Book Contributions

    • Duffy, K.S., Moran, A.P. and Carroll, C. V. (1998). Ultra violet and hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of Campylobacter jejuni; a comparison between a microaerophilic strain and its aerotolerant variant form.  In Lastovica, A. J., Newell, D. G. & Lastovica, E. E. (Eds.): Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms. Institute of Child Health and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. P.197-200.

    • Jennings, S.G., Moran, A.P. and Carroll C.V.. (2003). Bioaerosols and Biofilms.  In Biofilms in Medicine, Industry and Environmental Biotechnology; characteristics, analysis and control.  Eds Plens, Moran, A., Mahony, T., Stoodley, P. and O’Flaherty, V.  IWA Publishing, London UK.  Chapter 10: 160-178.

    • Jordan, K., Murph,y C and Carroll C.. (2005). Campylobacter spp. In “ Encyclopaedia of Diagnostic Genomics and Proteomics”.  Eds Jurgen Fuchs, Mauriziio Podda. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York. P. 185 – 188.

    • Carroll, C. (2006). New Infectious Disease Initiative at the National University of Ireland, Galway“Microbe-Human Interactions.” The Irish Scientist 2006 Year Book. (14), p 70


  • Recipient of the President's Award for Teaching Excellence 2011/2012

    "The University recognises Dr. Fleming for his outstanding commitment to teaching and the student experience.  Dr. Fleming was nominated for his passion about the learning and teaching experience, his range of teaching and assessment methods, and his collegiality and support for fellow staff members.  Students highlight his enthusiasm as a teacher, describing him as inspiring, motivating and very approachable."

    Professor Tom Sherry, Dean, College of Science at the presentation of the 2011/2012 President's Award for Teaching Excellence to Dr. Gerard Fleming, 25th October 2012


    Contact Information

    • Email:  ger.flemingnuigalway.ie
    • Telephone:  + 353 (0) 91 493562 (ext. 3562)
    • DI:  + 353 (0) 91 512394

    Academic Qualifications

    Ph.D. (University College, Galway)
    B.Sc. (University College, Galway)
    Postgraduate Certificate in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (NUI, Galway)
    National Diploma in Analytical Chemistry (Regional Technical College, Carlow)
    National Certificate in Applied Biology (Regional Technical College, Carlow)
    City and Guilds Certificate in Quality Control (London Institute)

    Research Interests

    The Marine Oceanography Research Unit MORU currently hosts the following research personnel:

    1.    Aileen Gill:  Ph.D. (Microbial Communities of  the Deep Mediterranean Sea)
    2.    Gary McCoy:  Ph.D. (Phytoplankton Detection) co-supervised by Dr. Raine (Ryan Institute)
    3.    Sarah Cosgrove:  Ph.D. (Monitoring of Alexandrium Blooms), co-supervised by Dr. Raine (Ryan Institute)
    4.    Sylvia Soldatou:  Ph.D.  (Marine Biodiscovery), co-supervised with Prof. Deniz Tasdemir (Chemistry)
    5.    Donal McGee:  Ph.D. (Marine Biodiscovery), co-supervised with Dr. Nicholas Touzet, (Sligo Institute of Technology)
    6.    Lillit Tonoyon:  Ph.D. (Antimicrobials), co-supervised with Prof. Vincent O'Flaherty (Microbiology)
    7.    Olivia Duignan:  Ph.D. (Antimicrobials), co-supervised with Dr. Cyril Carroll, (Microbiology)

    The research focus in the MORU can be broadly divided into three themes:

    Theme 1:  Marine Microbiology

    • Characterizataion of the distribution of the domain bacteria using T-RFLP/DGGE on samples taken from deep Ocean Sites in the Atlantic, Southern Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
    • Characterization of deep-sea piezophilic bacteria after culture under conditions of in situ pressure and temperature
    • Biodiscovery of novel antimicrobials from microorganisms derived from deep-sea sediments
    • Biodiscovery of novel antimicrobials from marine algae
    • Development of microarrays for monitoring toxic algae in Irish coastal waters
    • Monitoring of blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium in Cork Harbour

    Theme 2:  Antimicrobial Resistance

    • Development of antibiotic and disinfectant co-resistance among human pathogens as studied by means of enrichment chemostat cultures
    • Competitiveness of human pathogens (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Campylobacter jejuni) grown in chemostat culture

    Theme 3:  Research Support of Indigenous Industry and Regulatory Bodies

    • Development of novel antimicrobials and biocide efficacy testing
    • Assessment of exposure to health hazards of workers in the agricultural animal sector
    • The laboratory also undertakes short-term projects with SMEs relating to microbial assessment of facilities, disinfection efficacy assessment and product development.



    Book Chapters

    Fleming, G. T. and J. W. Patching (2008) 'The Fermenter in Research and Development' In: McNeil, B.; Harvey, L.M (eds). Practical Fermentation Technology. UK: John Wiley and Sons LTD. PP. 347- 376

    Patching, J. W. & Fleming, G. T. A. (2003) 'Industrial biofilms: formation, problems and control' In: Lens, P.; Moran, A.P.; Mahony, T.; Stoodley, P.; O'Flaherty, V (eds). Biofilms in Medicine, Industry and Environmental Biotechnology:characteristics, analysis and control. UK: IWA Publishing, London;UK. PP. 568-590

    Peer-Reviewed Scientific Papers


    Staunton, J., Williams, C.D., Mc Donnell, R.J., Fleming, G.T., Henry, T. & Gormally, M.J. (2014) 'Challenges in assessing ecological impacts of construction and demolition waste on wetlands: A case study'. Applied Ecology And Environmental Research, 12. (In Press)

    McCoy, G. R., McNamee, S., Campbell, K., Elliott,C. T.,  Fleming,  G.T.A. & Raine R. (2014) 'Monitoring a toxic bloom of Alexandrium minutum using novel microarray and multiplex surface plasmon resonance biosensor technology'. Harmful Algae, 32: 40-48.

    McCoy, G.R., Kegel, J. U., Touzet, N., Fleming, G.T.A., Medlin, L. K. & Raine, R. (2014) 'An assessment of RNA content in Prymnesium parvum, Prymnesium polylepis, cf. Chattonella sp. and Karlodinium veneficum under varying environmental conditions for calibrating an RNA microarray for species detection'. Fems Microbiology Ecology, 48 (1): 140-159

    McCoy, G.R., Touzet, N., Fleming, G.T.A. & Raine, R. (2013) 'An evaluation of the applicability of microarrays for monitoring toxic algae in Irish coastal waters'. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20: 6751-6761.

Touzet, N; McCarthy, D. and Fleming, G.T. (2013) 'Molecular fingerprinting of lacustrian cyanobacterial communities: regional patterns in summer diversity'. Fems Microbiology Ecology, 86 (3): 444-457

    McCarthy, D. M., Pearce, D. A., Patching, J.W. & Fleming, G.T.A. (2013) 'Contrasting Responses to Nutrient Enrichment of Prokaryotic Communities Collected from Deep Sea Sites in the Southern Ocean'. Biology, 2 (3): 1165-1188.

Coggins, M., Hogan, V., Fleming, G., Tynan, T., Kelly, M., Roberts, N. & Thorne, P.S. (2012) 'Workplace exposure to bioaerosols in podiatry clinics'. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 56 (6):746-753.

Egan, S.T., McCarthy, D.M., Patching, J.W. & Fleming, G.T.A. (2012) 'An investigation of the physiology and potential role of components of the deep ocean bacterial community (of the NE Atlantic) by enrichments carried out under minimal environmental change'. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers, 61: 11-20.

Mc Cay, P.H., Ocampo-Sosa, A.A. & Fleming, G.T.A. (2010) 'Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of benzalkonlum chloride on the competitiveness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in continuous culture'. Microbiology, 156: 30-38.

    Ryan, P., Forbes, C., McHugh, S., O'Reilly, C., Fleming, G.T.A. & Colleran, E. (2010) 'Enrichment of acetogenic bacteria in high rate anaerobic reactors under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions'. Water Research, 44: 4261-4269.

McDonnell, P.E., Coggins, M., Hogan, V. & Fleming, G. (2008) 'Exposure Assessment of Airborne Contaminants in the Indoor Environment of Irish Swine Farms'. Annals Of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 15: 323-326.

Smith, P., Fleming, G.T.A. & Carroll, C. (2008) 'Reducing inter-operator variation in disc diffusion assays by the inclusion of internal controls in a standard susceptibility test protocol'. Aquaculture, 285: 273-276.

Smith, P., Ruane, N.M., Douglas, I., Carroll, C., Kronvall, G. & Fleming, G.T.A. (2007) 'Impact of inter-lab variation on the estimation of epidemiological cut-off values for disc diffusion susceptibility test data for Aeromonas salmonicida'. Aquaculture, 272: 168-179.

Ruane, N.M., Douglas, I., Geary, M., Carroll, C., Fleming, G.T.A. & Smith, P (2007) 'Application of normalised resistance interpretation to disc diffusion data on the susceptibility of Aeromonas salmonicida to three quinolone agents'. Aquaculture, 272: 156-167.

Duignan, O., Fleming, G. T. A. and Carroll, C. V. (2007) 'A Study of the Adaptations Campylobacter jejuni to Antibiotic Selection Pressures in Chemostat Culture'. Zoonoses And Public Health, 54 (1): 39-39.

Douglas, I.,  Ruane, N.M., Geary, M., Carroll, C., Fleming, G.T.A. ,McMurray, J. & Smith, P (2007) 'The advantages of the use of discs containing single agents in disc diffusion testing of the susceptibility of Aeromonas salmonicida to potentiated sulphonamides'. Aquaculture, 272: 118-125.

Douglas, I., Smith, P. & Fleming, G. T. A. (2006) 'The effect of NaCl on measures of the antimicrobial agent susceptibility of Aeromonas salmonicida in standard disc diffusion assays'. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol., 26: 232-235.

    Curtin, J., Cormican, M., Fleming, G., Keelehan, J. & Colleran, E. (2003) 'Linezolid compared with eperezolid, vancomycin, and gentamicin in an in vitro model of antimicrobial lock therapy for Staphylococcus epidermidis central venous catheter-related biofilm infections'. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 47: 3145-3148.

    Fleming, G.T., McCarthy, D.M., Colombet, N. & Patching, J.W. (2002) 'The effect of levofloxacin concentration on the development and maintenance of antibiotic-resistant clones of Escherichia coli in chemostat culture'. Journal Of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 29: 155-162.

Fleming, G.T. & Patching J.W. (1994) 'Plasmid instability in an industrial strain of Bacillus subtilis grown in continuous culture'. Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 13: 106-111.

Fleming, G. , Dawson, M.T. Patching, J.W. (1988) 'The isolation of strains of  Bacillus subtilis showing improved plasmid stability characteristics by means of selective chemostat culture'. Journal of General Microbiology, 134: 2095-2101. 


    Published Reports

    Mc Donnell, P., Coggins, M., Hogan, V., Fleming, G. (2007) ’ Exposure Assessment to airborne contaminants in the indoor environment of Irish Swine Farms’. Health and Safety Authority Research Series. HSA, Dublin.



Research Groups

  • Infectious Disease and Immunity Cluster
    The PI research is based on bacterial pathogens with specific focus on Campylobacter jejuni. Research includes: Detection and Epidemiology of Campylobacter spp.; Adaptive Tolerance Response in Campylobacter spp.; Biofilm formation; Bioactive Ingredients from Algal Sources - Assessment of the effects of seaweed extracts as novel antimicrobial tools to limit Campylobacter infection of poultry. The co-PI has and her research group have a strong track record in the biotechnology of polysaccharides from terrestrial plants and marine algae. The group has developed methods to isolate, purify/characterize, enzymatically functionalize (‘Glycobioengineering’) and investigate the mechanism of action of bioactive polysaccharides from Macroalgae. With collaborators, the group also investigates the bioactive properties of these compounds.